Treatment and prevention of infections caused by microorganisms sensitive to metronidazole (mainly anaerobic bacteria). Treatment should be prescribed in the case of: infections of the Central nervous system (including brain abscess, meningitis); infections of the lungs and pleura (including necrotizing pneumonia, aspiration pneumonia, and lung abscess); endocarditis’s; infections of the gastrointestinal tract and abdominal cavity, including peritonitis, liver abscess, infections after operations on the colon or rectum, purulent lesions of the abdominal or pelvic cavity; gynecological infections, including endometritis after hysterectomy or caesarean section, birth fever, septic abortion);
Efloran 500 mg Composition
active substance: metronidazole;
100 ml (1 bottle) contains 500 mg of metronidazole;
Efloran 500 mg excipients: sodium chloride, sodium edetate, water for injection.
Efloran 500 mg Dosage form
Solution for infusion.
Basic physical and chemical properties: transparent, almost colorless or slightly yellowish solution, practically without visible inclusions.
Antibacterial agents for systemic use. Imidazole derivatives. Metronidazole. ATX code J01X D01.
Metronidazole is a synthetic antimicrobial drug, a nitroimidazole derivative that acts against anaerobic microorganisms – gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria. Treats some parasitic infections; has a pronounced effect against lamblia and Trichomonas.
Metronidazole acts in several stages: it penetrates into bacterial cells, its 5-nitro group is converted into hydroxylamine, which is accompanied by inhibition of the DNA of microorganisms up to a lethal effect, after which the cytotoxic metabolites of metronidazole decompose to non-toxic inactive metabolites.
The maximum serum concentration is almost the same after intravenous or oral administration; bioavailability ranges from 90% to 100%. The half-life of the active substance is 8 hours.
The active substance penetrates well into all tissues, organs and body fluids, the volume of distribution reaches 80% of the body weight.
After 4-6 hours, the concentration of metronidazole in the tissues and cerebrospinal fluid reaches 80-90% of the concentration in the blood serum. Plasma protein binding is only a small amount – no more than 20%.
Metronidazole is converted mainly in the liver. Basically, oxidative metabolites are formed, which are mainly excreted in the urine in the form of glucuronides.
The pre-systemic metabolism of the active substance is insignificant. Metabolism slows down in patients with liver disease. In patients with renal impairment, metabolites may accumulate.
Unmetabolized metronidazole is excreted mainly in the urine. From 6% to 15% of the administered dose is excreted with feces.
Metronidazole and its metabolites are rapidly excreted by hemodialysis.
Treatment and prevention of infections caused by microorganisms sensitive to metronidazole (mainly anaerobic bacteria).
Treatment should be prescribed if:
central nervous system infections (including brain abscess, meningitis);
infections of the lungs and pleura (including necrotizing pneumonia, aspiration pneumonia, lung abscess);
infections of the gastrointestinal tract and abdominal cavity, including peritonitis, liver abscess, infections after surgery on the colon or rectum, purulent lesions of the abdominal or pelvic cavity;
gynecological infections (including endometritis after hysterectomy or caesarean section, labor fever, septic abortion);
infections of the ENT organs and oral cavity (including Simanovsky-Plaut-Vincent sore throat);
infections of bones and joints (including osteomyelitis);
septicemia with thrombophlebitis.
For mixed aerobic and anaerobic infections, in addition to metronidazole, appropriate antibiotics should be used to treat aerobic infections.
Before operations with a high risk of anaerobic infections (before gynecological and intra-abdominal operations), the prophylactic use of metronidazole is always indicated.
When using metronidazole, national and international guidelines for the appropriate use of antimicrobial agents should be considered.
Hypersensitivity to metronidazole, other drugs with a similar chemical structure (nitroimidazole) or to any other component of the drug.
It is not recommended to use the drug in combination with disulfiram or alcohol.