Inflammatory and infectious diseases of the mouth and pharynx, which are accompanied by pain when swallowing and irritation.
active ingredients: chlorhexidine dihydrochloride, lidocaine hydrochloride;
1 lozenge contains chlorhexidine dihydrochloride 5 mg and lidocaine hydrochloride 1 mg;
excipients: menthol (levomenthol), citric acid, magnesium stearate, sorbitol (E 420).
Lidoxan Dosage form
Basic physical and chemical properties: round tablets of white or almost white color with small inclusions with a mint taste and smell.
Throat medications. ATX code R02A.
Lidocaine hydrochloride is an amide-type peripheral local anesthetic. It exhibits a superficial analgesic effect without delaying the conduction of nerve impulses at the injection site.
As a local anesthetic, lidocaine has the same mechanism of action as other drugs in this group: it blocks the generation and conduction of nerve impulses in sensory, motor and autonomic nerve fibers. It directly affects cell membranes, inhibiting the entry of sodium ions into nerve fibers through the membranes. In connection with the progressive spread of the anesthetic effect, the threshold of electrical excitation in the peripheral nerves increases, the conduction of the nerve impulse slows down, and the reproduction of the action potential is weakened, which ultimately leads to the complete blocking of the nerve impulse. In general, local anesthetics block autonomic nerves, small unmyelinated (pain sensation) and small myelinated (pain sensation, fever), faster than large myelinated fibers (touch sensation, pressure).
At the molecular level, lidocaine specifically blocks sodium ion channels in an inactive state, prevents the generation of an action potential, preventing the conduction of a nerve impulse when lidocaine is applied topically near the nerve.
The effect on peripheral nerves is important if lidocaine is used as a local anesthetic. The relationship between efficacy and toxicity is favorable. Allergic reactions caused by lidocaine are very rare.
Chlorhexidine is a cationic antiseptic that has antibacterial effects on both gram-positive and gram-negative microorganisms (e.g. Micrococcus sp., Staphylococcus sp., Streptococcus sp., Bacillus sp., Clostridium sp., Corynebacterium sp.). It also has an antimycotic effect against dermatophytes and fungi. The drug acts as a bacteriostatic at low concentrations, and at high concentrations has a bactericidal effect.
Chlorhexidine carries a powerful positive charge – thus, it is adsorbed on negatively charged areas of the bacterial cell wall and on extracellular structures. Absorption is specific and is localized in the corresponding areas of the bacterial cell wall containing phosphates.
Chlorhexidine binds to the cytoplasmic membrane of the bacterium. It is adsorbed on the negatively charged surface of the teeth, on the plates in the mouth or on the membrane of the oral cavity. Small amounts of active substances enter the gastrointestinal tract with saliva. Chlorhexidine is not absorbable. Lidocaine can be absorbed through the mucous membrane of the mouth and pharynx. However, most of it is destroyed without reaching the systemic circulation.
Chlorhexidine is poorly absorbed after topical or oral administration. After topical application to the affected area of the skin, chlorhexidine is absorbed by the outer layer of the skin, which causes a long-term bactericidal effect on the skin. During pharmacokinetic studies, it was revealed that approximately 30% of chlorhexidine remains in the oral cavity after rinsing, and then is gradually released into saliva. Patients swallow about 4% chlorhexidine.
After oral administration, the binding of chlorhexidine to plasma proteins is insufficient.
Metabolism and excretion
Chlorhexidine does not accumulate. Only a small part is metabolized. 10% of the absorbed active substance is excreted in the urine, and 90% in the feces.