Inflammatory and infectious diseases of the mouth and pharynx, which are accompanied by pain when swallowing and irritation.
Lidoxan spray Composition
active ingredients: chlorhexidine digluconate, lidocaine hydrochloride;
1 ml of the drug contains chlorhexidine digluconate 2 mg, lidocaine hydrochloride 0.5 mg;
excipients: citric acid monohydrate, sucralose; lemon flavor; propylene glycol; glycerin ethanol 96%; purified water.
Lidoxan spray Oral spray.
Basic physical and chemical properties: transparent, colorless solution with the smell of lemon and alcohol, with lemon flavor.
Throat medications. ATX code R02A.
Lidoxan spray Pharmacodynamics
Chlorhexidine is a cationic antiseptic of the bis-biguanide class, which has an antibacterial effect on both gram-positive (e.g. Micrococcus sp., Staphylococcus sp., Streptococcus sp., Bacillus sp., Clostridium sp., Corynebacterium sp.) and to a lesser extent), mainly in the vegetative form (at room temperature, it is inactive against bacterial spores). It also has anti-fungal properties against dermatophytes and fungi. The drug rapidly inactivates some lipophilic viruses (eg influenza virus, herpes virus, HIV).
The drug acts as a bacteriostatic at low concentrations, and at high concentrations has a bactericidal effect. The chlorhexidine molecule carries a powerful positive charge – and thus is absorbed into negatively charged areas of the bacterial cell wall. Absorption is specific and is localized in special, phosphate-containing areas of the bacterial cell wall. This disrupts the integrity of the cell membrane and leads to increased permeability.
Chlorhexidine is absorbed on the surface of the teeth, plates located in the mouth, or the oral mucosa; this allows the drug to remain in the mouth for a longer period of time.
The effectiveness of antiseptics and disinfectants depends on concentration, temperature and exposure time.
Lidocaine hydrochloride is an amide-type peripheral local anesthetic. It exhibits a superficial analgesic effect.
As a local anesthetic, lidocaine has the same mechanism of action as other drugs in this group; it blocks the generation and conduction of nerve impulses in sensory, motor and autonomic nerve fibers. It directly affects cell membranes, inhibiting the entry of sodium ions into nerve fibers through the membranes. In connection with the progressive spread of the anesthetic effect, the threshold of electrical excitation in the peripheral nerves increases, the conduction of the nerve impulse slows down, and the reproduction of the action potential is weakened, which ultimately leads to the complete blocking of the nerve impulse. In general, local anesthetics block autonomic nerves, small unmyelinated (pain sensation) and small myelinated (pain sensation, temperature), faster than large myelinated fibers (touch sensation, pressure).
At the molecular level, lidocaine specifically blocks sodium ion channels in an inactive state, prevents the generation of action potential and prevents nerve impulse conduction when lidocaine is topically applied near the nerve.
The effect on peripheral nerves is important if lidocaine is used as a local anesthetic. Evaluation of the relationship between efficacy and toxicity is favorable. Allergic reactions caused by lidocaine are very rare.
In addition to blocking excitation in peripheral nerves, local anesthetics affect all organs where impulses are excited. There is an effect on the central nervous system, autonomic ganglia, neuromuscular junctions and all forms of muscle fibers. Lidocaine is also a class Ib antiarrhythmic drug.
Absorption. Chlorhexidine is poorly absorbed after topical or oral administration. During pharmacokinetic studies, it was revealed that approximately 30% of chlorhexidine remains in the oral cavity after washing, and is subsequently gradually released into saliva.
Chlorhexidine binds heavily to proteins in saliva.
Metabolism and excretion.
Chlorhexidine does not accumulate in body tissues. Its metabolic rate is negligible. After oral administration of 300 mg of chlorhexidine gluconate, approximately 90% of the dose is excreted in bile and feces, and less than 10% in urine.
Absorption. The degree of systemic absorption of lidocaine depends on the site and route of administration. It is rapidly absorbed from the digestive tract, mucous membranes and through damaged skin.
In healthy adults, a 2% solution for washing the oral cavity is used, lidocaine was not detected in the blood plasma. In children and adults with immune deficiency, lidocaine is reabsorbed through the oral mucosa into the blood plasma. Plasma concentration of lidocaine is approximately 0.2 μg / m