This Novocain drug is used for: local anesthesia; therapeutic blockade; infiltration anesthesia.
Main active ingredients: novocaine (procaine hydrochloride).
Auxiliary components: hydrochloric acid, water for injection.
It is produced in the form of a solution for injection, in bottles of 200 ml, in a dosage of 0.25% novocaine solution.
This pharmaceutical drug Novocain belongs to the group of pain relieving drugs, which are based on novocaine.
Thanks to novocaine (procaine), anesthesia appears. It has a moderate activity and has a wide range of applications in medicine.
Anesthesia is achieved using a special mechanism of action – novocaine has the ability to block sodium channels, inhibit potassium current, compete with calcium, reduce surface tension on the phospholipid layers of cell membranes, inhibit oxidative and reduction processes, and generate impulses.
After novocaine enters the bloodstream, the synthesis of acetylcholines decreases in the human body, the ability of cholinergic systems to excitement decreases (only those that are peripheral).
The drug has a blocking effect on vegetative ganglia, reducing spasm of smooth muscles, as a result, in the myocardium there is a decrease in excitability, as well as in the motor zones in the cerebral cortex.
This Novocain drug is used for:
- local anesthesia;
- therapeutic blockade;
- infiltration anesthesia.
The drug in question is contraindicated for use in cases where the patient has severe hypersensitivity (allergy) to the main or to one of the auxiliary components.
Use is contraindicated in:
- myasthenia gravis, arterial hypotension;
- purulent processes at the site of potential injection;
- surgical interventions that may be accompanied by acute blood loss;
- pronounced fibrotic changes in tissues (when planning anesthesia with novocaine using the creeping infiltration method).
Also, you should not use the drug in the treatment of children.
Application during pregnancy and lactation
This drug should be used with caution in the treatment of pregnant women, always based on careful weighing of the risk / benefit ratio, since this drug has not been tested in pregnant women.
If it is necessary to take the drug during breastfeeding, then during treatment, lactation should be suspended.
Method of administration and dosage
This drug is intended for local anesthesia and is administered by injection. In general, the dosage depends on the nature of the planned operation, the method of administration chosen by the doctor, the physical condition of the patient, his age.
When carrying out perirenal blockade in the perirenal tissue, adults are injected from 50 to 70 ml of 0.5% or 100-150 ml of 0.25% Novocaine solution.
Maximum dosages for infiltration anesthesia:
- the first single dose at the beginning of the operation – 0.75 g (i.e. 150 ml) 0.5% novocaine solution or 1.25 g (i.e. 500 ml) 0.25%;
- then during each hour of the operation – no more than 2 grams (400 ml of 0.5% novocaine solution or 2.5 g (that is, 1,000 ml) 0.25% novocaine).
With excessively prolonged use, symptoms of intoxication may appear in the form of:
- dizziness, nausea, pale skin;
- general weakness, increased nervous excitability, a sense of fear;
- lowering blood pressure up to collapse;
- tremors, seizures, apnea, respiratory depression;
- cardiovascular collapse.
In case of an overdose, the introduction of novocaine – stop, inject adrenaline into the injection site of novocaine.
Treatment – oxygen inhalation, artificial ventilation. Convulsions are relieved by the introduction of thiopental, diazepam.
Arterial hypotension is treated with ephedrine.
To prevent the ingress of novocaine into the general bloodstream, a tourniquet should be applied to the operated limb.
In general, symptomatic treatment is recommended.
The drug rarely causes side effects and is well tolerated.
The following side effects are possible, such as:
- headache, dizziness, drowsiness, weakness, loss of consciousness, convulsions, tremors, nystagmus, cauda equina syndrome (paralysis of the legs, paresthesia), respiratory muscle paralysis, return of pain, persistent anesthesia;
- increase or decrease in blood pressure, peripheral vasodilation, collapse, bradycardia, arrhythmia, chest pain;
- itching, rash, allergic urticaria, angioedema, dermatitis, anaphylactic shock;
- involuntary defecation, involuntary urination;
- nausea, vomiting.
Storage conditions and periods
The shelf life is up to 3 years.
Storage temperature should not exceed 25 ° C.