Treatment of infections caused by drug-sensitive pathogens in cases where the benefit of such treatment outweighs the potential risk; the question is whether one single antibacterial agent should be used. Infections of ENT-organs and respiratory tract: acute and chronic bronchitis, bronchiectasis, pneumonia (including caused by Pneumocystis carini), pharyngitis, angina (for infections caused by β-hemolytic streptococci of group A, frequency of eradication, non-eradication, otitis. Kidney and urinary tract infections: acute and chronic cystitis, pyelonephritis, urethritis, prostatitis, mild chancre. Digestive tract infections: typhoid and paratyphoid, shigellosis (caused by sensitive strains of Shigella flexneri and Shigella sonnei, if antibacterial therapy is shown), “traveler” diarrhea caused by enterotoxic Escherichia coli strains, cholera (doping). Other bacterial infections: acute and chronic osteomyelitis, brucellosis, nocardiosis, actinomycosis, toxoplasmosis, South American blastomycosis.
Composition and form of release
Main active ingredients: sulfamethoxazole, trimethoprim.
Auxiliary components: potato starch, talc, sodium starch glycolate, glycerin, stearic acid, magnesium stearate.
It is produced in the form of tablets, and 1 tablet contains 400 mg of sulfamethoxazole and 80 mg of trimethoprim.
This medicinal product belongs to combined antibacterial pharmaceuticals based on sulfonamides and trimethoprim, used systemically for the treatment of infectious diseases.
This antibacterial agent has a synergistic effect, which has the property of inhibiting the synthesis of purine compounds that are present in bacterial cells.
Also, this drug is capable of disrupting various stages of the synthesis of metabolic processes of folic acid.
In particular, sulfamethoxazole has the property of inhibiting the incorporation of PABA into the metabolic processes of this acid. Plays an important role in the functioning of the nervous system.
Trimethoprim, in turn, inhibits dihydrofolic acid reductase.
In general, the drug is able to inhibit the development of bacteria of both gram-positive and gram-negative series.
At the same time, the drug has no effect on fungi and viruses.
This drug is used to treat infections:
- respiratory organs – exacerbations in chronic bronchitis, as well as in otitis media in children, treatment and prevention of pneumonia;
- organs of the genitourinary system: urinary tract, gonococcal urethritis, soft chancre;
- organs of the gastrointestinal tract – typhoid and paratyphoid fever, shigellosis, cholecystitis, diarrhea caused by enterogenic strains of Escherichia coli, cholera;
- acute brucellosis, mycetoma, nocardiosis, blastomycosis, scarlet fever;
- skin – furunculosis, impetigo, erysipelas, purulent folliculitis, abscesses, acne, infected wounds, sepsis;
The drug in question is contraindicated for use in cases where the patient has severe hypersensitivity (allergy) to the main or to one of the auxiliary components.
Also, use is contraindicated for:
- anemia, leukopenia;
- disorders of the liver or kidneys;
- bronchial asthma, thyroid diseases.
It is not used in the treatment of children under 6 years of age.
Application during pregnancy and lactation
This drug is not used in the treatment of pregnant women.
If it is necessary to take the drug during breastfeeding, then during treatment, lactation should be suspended.
Method of administration and dosage
This drug is usually taken 1-2 tablets 2 times a day, every 12 hours.
Adults and children over 12 – 2 tablets 2 times a day, children from 6 to 12 years old – 1 tablet 2 times a day.
Some recommended dosages and duration of treatment:
- inflammation of the bladder and chronic bronchitis in adults – 2 tablets in the morning and evening, treatment – 10-14 days, prevention – up to 12 months;
- inflammation of the bladder and chronic bronchitis in children 2-5 years old – half a tablet each;
- inflammation of the bladder and chronic bronchitis in children 6-12 years old – 1 tablet each;
- inflammation of the bladder and middle ear in children – 48 mg per 1 kg of body weight, 2 doses, every 12 hours;
- pneumonia due to Pneumocystis carinii – from 90 to 120 mg per 1 kg of patient weight, every 6 hours, 2-3 weeks (children – half a tablet 2 times a day, 1-2 weeks);
- gonorrhea – 4-6 tablets, in 3 divided doses with a difference of 12 hours;
- acute brucellosis – 3-4 weeks, typhoid fever – 1-3 months.
In case of kidney disease, the dose of the drug is reduced by 50%.
Symptoms of an overdose with this drug:
- nausea, vomiting, dizziness;
- drowsiness, loss of consciousness;
- thrombocytopenia, leukopenia (with chronic overdose).
Treatment – gastric lavage, diuresis, hemodialysis, calcium folinate administration.
In general, symptomatic treatment is recommended.
The drug rarely causes side effects and is well tolerated.
The following side effects are possible, such as:
- itching, rash, allergic urticaria;
- nausea, vomiting, epigastric pain, pancreatitis, thrombophlebitis;
- fever, angioedema, anaphylactic shock;
- anemia, headache, inflammation of the hepatic parenchyma;
- pseudomembranous colitis, arthralgia, myalgia;
- liver necrosis, aplastic anemia, hemolytic anemia, agranulocytosis, eosinophilia, thrombocytopenia.
Storage conditions and periods
The shelf life is up to 5 years.
Storage temperature should not exceed 25 ° C.