Treatment of diabetes in adults, adolescents and children from 1 year of age. Means that affect the digestive tract and metabolism. Drugs used in diabetes. Long-acting injectable insulin and analogues.
Composition and form of release
Main active ingredient: insulin degludec.
Auxiliary components: metacresol, zinc acetate, glycerin, sodium hydroxide, hydrochloric acid, water for injection.
It is produced in the form of a solution for injection, in cartridges with a volume of 3 ml, 100 units in 1 ml.
This drug belongs to the group of antidiabetic immunobiological drugs-insulin, analogs of human insulin, designed to lower blood sugar levels, with prolonged action.
This drug owes its hypoglycemic effect to the ability of glucose to be more actively absorbed by the tissues of the body, after the binding of insulin entering the blood and receptors of muscle cells and lipids occurs. At the same time, the release of glucose by liver cells is inhibited.
As shown by clinical studies, the use of insulin with the help of intravenous administration reduced the number of deaths by 42%, when the blood sugar level (glycemia level) was brought back to normal (normoglycemia phenomenon).
The action of the drug lasts for 24 hours.
It also produces anti-catabolic and anabolic effects, producing a multifaceted effect on metabolic processes in all tissues of the body.
This drug is used in the treatment of diabetes mellitus, to maintain normal blood sugar levels.
The drug in question is contraindicated for use in cases where the patient has severe hypersensitivity (allergy) to the main or one of the auxiliary components.
Not suitable for patients with low blood sugar (hypoglycemia).
Application during pregnancy and lactation
This drug, if necessary, is used in the treatment of pregnant women, as well as nursing mothers.
It should be borne in mind that the need for insulin usually decreases in the first trimester of pregnancy and increases significantly in the II and III trimesters. After the baby is born, the level of need for blood sugar returns.
Method of administration and dosage
The daily human need for insulin depends on the neglect of the disease, body weight, age, diet, physical activity, the degree of insulin resistance and the dynamics of the glycemic level.
Therefore, the dosage is strictly individual and can fluctuate and be adjusted depending on the blood sugar level, physical activity, the amount of carbohydrates consumed, infectious and other diseases, based on the fact that the average daily requirement is in the range from 0.5 to 1 IU per kg of weight per day. With obesity, pregnancy, and with existing insulin resistance, the need for insulin increases.
Insulin is given before meals.
It is injected subcutaneously (into the drawn skin on the thigh, buttocks, shoulder, abdomen). After insertion, the needle remains under the skin for an additional 6 seconds to facilitate full dose delivery.
Periodic change of the injection site reduces lipodystrophy.
It is strictly forbidden to administer the drug intravenously.
In case of an overdose, a sharp drop in blood sugar levels is possible, which threatens with loss of consciousness, coma and death.
When a hypoglycemic attack is approaching, you should take a short carbohydrate as soon as possible – preferably sugar. When sugar is diluted in a liquid at a high concentration, its entry into the blood will be most effective.
In case of loss of consciousness and the inability to consume carbohydrates orally, subcutaneous or intramuscular administration of glucagon (0.5-1 mg) is recommended.
In case of mortal danger, if within 15 minutes the patient does not respond to the administration of glucagon, glucose is administered intravenously (only a doctor!)
After the patient has regained consciousness, he is allowed to take foods with a high glycemic index.
The most common side effect of insulin administration is hypoglycemia.
You can also observe:
- refractive errors, edema reactions at the injection site (pain, redness, urticaria, inflammation, bruising, swelling, itching at the injection site) – passing, usually observed at the beginning of treatment;
- temporary exacerbation of diabetic retinopathy (long-term glycemic control reduces the risk of diabetic retinopathy progression);
- anaphylactic reactions, peripheral neuropathies (painful neuropathies);
- refractive errors, diabetic retinopathy;
Storage conditions and periods
The shelf life is up to 2.5 years.
The storage temperature should not be lower than 2 ° C or higher than 8 ° C. Do not freeze!
After the first opening, it is suitable for up to 4 weeks, at a storage temperature not exceeding 30 ° C.