Nausea and vomiting caused by cytotoxic chemotherapy and radiation therapy. Prevention and treatment of postoperative nausea and vomiting.
The drug is an effective remedy for vomiting. The main ingredient of the drug is ondansetron, an antagonist of membrane receptors of 5-hydroxytryptamine, which are mediators of the hormone serotonin. The effect of the drug has not been fully studied. Ondansetron is thought to have an inhibitory effect on serotonin receptors, thereby eliminating the urge to vomit. Its effect extends to the peripheral and central nervous systems.
It should be noted that ondansetron does not interact with dopamine receptors, so it is not effective in seasickness. In this case, the drug does not cause sleep disorders, and does not affect the level of lactotropic prolactin in the blood.
The drug has good absorption in the gastrointestinal tract and in 1.5 hours after ingestion reaches its maximum concentration in the blood. Metabolism takes place in the liver, excretion occurs through the kidneys. The digestibility of the drug increases when using the tool with food and can be 100%.
Release form, composition
Liquid for IV in ampoules on 2 or 4 ml. In a package of 5 ampoules.
Composition: 1 ml of solution for injection contains ondansetron hydrochloride dihydrate 2 mg.
Indications for use
The drug is prescribed to relieve the urge to vomit in patients undergoing chemotherapy and radiation.
The drug is contraindicated in persons with hypersensitivity to the drug.
Pregnancy and breastfeeding
The use of the drug during pregnancy can be prescribed by your doctor if necessary. To date, there are no data on the safety of taking the drug for the fetus. In case of acute need to take the drug during breastfeeding, it is recommended to interrupt it during the use of the drug.
Method of application
For children, as a rule, prescribe intravenous administration of 2 mg of the drug and after 12 hours orally 4 mg 2 times a day.
The injection fluid is administered intramuscularly if the dose is less than 8 mg. The drug is administered intravenously by mixing with Ringer’s solution or others in an amount of 8 mg before the chemotherapy procedure and twice after with an interval of 4 hours.
For children, the dosage of a single intravenous injection is 0.1 mg / kg. Permissible high dose for children – 4 mg.
The maximum dose for patients with hepatic impairment is 8 mg.
There is not enough information at the moment about cases of drug overdose. In case of overestimation of the recommended doses, strengthening of side effects is possible. Treatment is symptomatic. Ipecac should not be used as it is ineffective.
During the use of the drug may develop the following side effects:
- stool disorder;
- dry mouth;
- increase in liver enzymes;
- burning in the anus (when using candles);
- blood pressure reduction;
- skin rash;
- vision impairment;
- anaphylactic shock.
The drug should be stored away from children at a temperature of 15-30 degrees.
The finished injection liquid should be stored at a temperature of 2 to 8 degrees for no longer than 24 hours.